INFUSED Formula Profile

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BCAA's (Branched Chain Amino Acids)

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are three amino acids with similar structures: Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine. They can be found in any food containing protein, such as eggs or meat.
BCAAs are used directly by muscle fibers as a fuel source. This is especially true during intense exercise, such as weight training. Numerous studies suggest that supplementing with BCAAs near the time of exercise promotes muscle endurance. BCAA’s also benefit the body by delaying fatigue and increasing Muscle Protein Synthesis.
While Leucine plays the primary role in increasing Muscle Protein Synthesis, it is most effective to take BCAA’s in a 2:1:1 ratio of Leucine to Isoleucine and Valine. Researchers from Baylor University gave college-aged men either a leucine supplement, a 2:1:1 BCAA supplement, or a placebo before and after a leg workout. The researchers found that while leucine did increase Muscle Protein Synthesis after training better than the placebo, the BCAAs increased protein synthesis even better than leucine and the placebo. This is why we use a 2:1:1 ratio in INFUSED.
Another reason to use a 2:1:1 BCAA supplement is to increase energy and lessen fatigue. During exercise, BCAA levels in the body are depleted. A serum decline in BCAA’s can cause a tryptophan rush into the brain, where tryptophan is converted in the brain into serotonin. Having higher serotonin during exercise signals the brain that the body is fatigued, which can lead to a reduction in muscle strength and endurance.. Taking BCAAs while you train can prevent this decrease in BCAA levels, helping to delay fatigue and improve both physical and mental performance.
Research shows that taking 6 grams of BCAAs as an intra-workout drink can reduce fatigue. Studies also show that taking a similar dose can enhance fat utilization during exercise in a glycogen-depleted state - so If you're following a low-carb diet or if you train in a fasted state, intra-workout BCAA supplementation would be even more advantageous.
BCAA Research Links:
Stoppani, J., et al., Consuming branched-chain amino acid supplement during a resistance training program increases lean mass, muscle strength and fat loss. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6(Suppl 1):P1, 2009.
Anthony, J. C., Yoshizawa, F., Anthony, T. G., Vary, T. C., Jefferson, L. S., & Kimball, S. R. (2000) Leucine stimulates translation inititation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J. Nutr. 130: 2413-2419.
Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S.R., Emmert, S. W., Anthony, J. C., & Jefferson, L.S. (2005) Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 135: 376-382.
Crowe, M. J., et al. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Aug;97(6):664-72.
Bolster, D. R., Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S. R., & Jefferson, L. S. (2002) AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle through down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 23977-23980.
Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, van Loon LJ. (2005) Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 288(4): E645-653.
Coburn, J. W., et al. Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during eight weeks of unilateral resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 2006 May;20(2):284-91.
La Bounty, P., et al., The effects of oral BCAAs and leucine supplementation combined with an acute lower-body resistance exercise on mTOR and 4E-BP1 activation in humans: preliminary findings. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(Suppl 1):P21, 2008.
Glyn Howatson, Michael Hoad, Stuart Goodall, Jamie Tallent, Phillip G Bell and Duncan N French (2013) Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study  Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Gualano, A. B., Bozza, T., De Campos, P. L., Roschel, H., Costa, A. D. S., Marquezi, M. L., ... & Junior, A. H. L. (2011). Branched-chain amino acids supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation during endurance exercise after muscle glycogen depletion. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51(1), 82-8.
Shimomura, Y., Murakami, T., Nakai, N., Nagasaki, M., & Harris, R. A. (2004). Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(6), 1583S-1587S.

 

L-Glutamine

L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in your body, and is used by your muscles during periods of intense exercise. 
L-Glutamine is also shown to increase your secretion of growth hormone, aiding in new muscle growth and metabolizing body fat. In fact, a dose of 2,000mg - 4,000mg of L-Glutamine has been shown to increase natural Growth Hormone production up to 400% during and immediately after exercise.
Increased glutamine availability has been shown to contribute to decreased inflammation and optimal recovery. Supplementing L-Glutamine replenishes glutamine stores enabling you to train harder and longer, while preventing muscle catabolism.
L-Glutamine Research Links:
Gleeson M: “Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training”
Matt Samuels, RD. “Glutamine and it’s Role in Athletic Performance”
Aostini, Francesco; Biolo, Gianni: “Effect of physical activity on glutamine metabolism”

 

Taurine

Taurine is an organic acid which acts as a lipid/membrane stabilizer in the body and can aid various antioxidant defense systems. It is found in foods, in highest amounts in meats, and is a heart and blood healthy agent that can confer a wide variety of health benefits. Its most well known usage is to reduce cramping caused by stimulants and fat-burners.
Taurine exerts most of its benefits vicariously through other compounds in the body, but exerts some of its own on a cellular level. It is being heavily researched as an anti-diabetic compound due to its actions on organs of the body of most concern to diabetics (kidney, eye, nerve health) as well as controlling blood sugar while reducing some forms of insulin resistance.
One study using taurine paired with BCAAs noted that combination therapy, but neither placebo nor either supplement in isolation, was able to reduce muscle soreness. This is why we include clinical doses of both Taurine and Glutamine in INFUSED.
Taurine Research Links:
Jacobsen JG, Smith LH: Biochemistry and physiology of taurine and taurine derivatives . Physiol Rev. (1968)
Huxtable RJ: Physiological actions of taurine . Physiol Rev. (1992)
Ra SG, et al: Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise . Adv Exp Med Biol. (2013)
Pansani MC, et al Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats . PLoS One. (2012)

 

Betaine Anhydrous

Betaine (pronounced "BEE-tane") Anhydrous, aka Trimethylglycine, has been shown to increase muscular endurance, strength, and growth hormone production in response to exercise. "Anhydrous" simply means that all water has been removed from the powder.
In a study done at the University of Connecticut, the UCONN researchers found that resistance-trained athletes (experienced weight-lifters) increased their muscle strength by 25 percent, and their muscle power by 20 percent, by taking 1.25 grams of betaine twice per day.
We utilize this same proven nutrient timing in our first two products – The first 1.25g dose is found in AMPLIFY, the second is included in INFUSED, our intra-workout FORMULA designed to complement the effects of AMPLIFY. Taking AMPLIFY pre-workout and INFUSED during your workout is our recommended way to utilize this exact nutrient timing.
(Anhydrous simply means that all water has been removed to create a powdered form.)
Betaine Research Links:
Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. (2009)
Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. (2010)
The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance-trained men. (2011)
Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. (2012)
Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. (2013)

 

Citrulline Malate

INFUSED includes a holistic dose of Citrulline Malate. This 1g dosage is not intended to produce massive pumps, as it is already included in our pre-workout - AMPLIFY. Instead it is included at a minimal dosage to help prolong the effects of your pre-workout, aid in absorption of the amino acids and nutrients in INFUSED by way of enhanced blood-flow, help clear ammonia and toxins from the bloodstream, and to help your body replenish ATP to power through a grueling workout.
Citrulline Malate is the amino acid L-Citrulline bound with Malic Acid. L-Citrulline is converted in the kidneys into L-Arginine, which has long been used in the supplement industry as a substrate for production of Nitric Oxide. However, the body much better absorbs Citrulline than Arginine. In fact, Citrulline is shown to increase plasma Arginine levels even more effectively than Arginine itself! Yes, studies show that supplementing with Citrulline will raise Arginine to a greater degree, and for a longer duration, than simply taking an equal dose of Arginine. The Malic Acid component also contributes to cellular energy production. In summary, according to the latest sports science, Citrulline Malate has been shown to provide the body with:
Greater Nitric Oxide Production – for more intense, longer-lasting pumps and vascularity.
Reduced Lactic Acid and Ammonia buildup during exercise – to help you train harder and longer.
Amplified Cellular Energy (ATP) Production – to help your muscles power through intense activity.
Citrulline Malate Research Links:
Citrulline malate limits increase in muscle fatigue induced by bacterial endotoxins. (1997)
Citrulline malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. (2002)
L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. (2006)
Citrulline and the gut. (2007)
Dose-ranging effects of citrulline administration on plasma amino acids and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects: the Citrudose pharmacokinetic study. (2008)
Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. (2010)
L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. (2010)
Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. (2011)
Effects of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and exercise performance in mice. (2011)
Short-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged men. (2012)

 

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